Prevalence of HIV among adults aged 15— Since then program rapidly expanded to almost all areas of the country reaching percent coverage in [ 38 ]. However there remains a huge lack in our comprehension concerning those contexts and the extent to which they influence the diseases and their underlying causes.
In alone, half a million children years were infected with TB and of them, 64, died . Life Expectancy for a Stage 3 Lymph Node Cancer Patient Tuberculosis is disease that concentrates in the lungs and is caused by a bacterial infection.
Scanning electron micrograph image depicting numerous clumps of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; Magnified x.
Early detection and effective cure protocol are important determinants of disease control but notification rates are higher in men than women in most countries as lack of mobility, poverty, and heavy workload of women restrict access to health care facilities. Secondly, considering the rate of incidence and the future implications on society and the economy, this paper focuses mainly on TB and HIV, but there are many other infectious diseases on the list which are also regarded very serious such as viral hepatitis, malaria, and pneumonia.
Despite decades of effort, risks related to the gender dimension of health are still dramatically relevant. Mexico suffered great economic loss and damage to its tourism industry in an attempt to contain the outbreak in its early stage.
The Global Strategy for Saving Lives through Innovation session highlighted key innovations for improving maternal and child health, including the Maternal and Newborn mHealth Initiative that has been adopted as a programme in the Global Strategy.
While all age groups are at risk for TB, the disease tends to target young adults and children. And, by doing so, it attempts to provide a framework for formulating more efficient prevention and intervention strategies for the future.
The governments in South Asian countries are very unlikely to succeed in improving the situation single-handedly and working in conjunction with the NGOs can substantially reduce the burden on healthcare systems and enhance the efficacy of such programs as well since the NGOs have shown better performance in reaching the most disadvantaged communities.
NTDs are diseases of socially excluded populations that promote poverty by relatively depriving individuals from basic capabilities [ 55 ].
South Asia, which is also known as the Indian subcontinent, is home to over one-fifth of the global population. The overall QoL was assessed using specific questions and the mean scores for it were not the average of the mean scores of the domains. TB and Infants Children younger than 12 months can develop meningitis, which can be fatal because their immune systems are not strong enough to fight the bacteria causing the disease, reports All4NaturalHealth.
South Asian countries need to formulate strategic social and health policies to promote both quality and equity in healthcare service and for which emphasis should be assigned on the social factors, especially on ensuring social stability, enhancing social inclusion and community involvement in order to broaden public understanding of social issues in mitigating the health problems.
Additional symptoms of TB might appear at the site of the test, including skin rash with itching, blistering, peeling and loosening of the skin. Poverty is a key determinant of leishmaniasis [ 62 ] and it is especially rampant in southern, central, eastern, and western India, where heavy monsoon, animal rearing practices, and agrarian way of life predispose to this infection [ 63 ].
The microcredit program in Bangladesh for TB treatment has shown promising outcomes in recent years and many other countries are now working on increasing the provision of microcredits among the most vulnerable population.
By the end ofaround 2. Another study from University Hospitals in Assuit, Egypt, analyzed the effects of tuberculosis on menstrual patterns and fertility .
In a study conducted by the Department of Community Medicine at Maulana Azad Medical College in New Dehli, India, scientists looked beyond the physical health conditions of TB patients and evaluated the psychological conditions - notably quality of life - associated with TB diagnosis .
A total of 90 cases who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed at the study centre itself within first three days of registration using a pre-designed, pre-tested questionnaire regarding socio-demographic data, perception about his QoL using WHO QoL BREF Hindi version which is a item scale designed by WHO.
It can also be responsible for damage to the central nervous system and brain, the circulatory system, affecting gastrointestinal tract, lymph nodes, skin, joints and bones. Lack of access to healthcare, health illiteracy, social stigma, and poor diet also contribute to increase vulnerability to NTDs and thwart prevention efforts.
Women especially felt the intense social impacts of TB, as tests indicated deteriorating sexual lives and crumbling mother-child relationships resulting from fear of infection. HIV prevalence almost doubled in the period between and from 11 to 21 percent and today Pakistan has the second highest prevalence of HIV in South Asia.
In India, leptospirosis happens to be prevalent among those who work mostly in polluted conditions such as farmers [ 60 ]. Due to the ease with which the disease is transferred, people do not want to be in close proximity to any infected individuals.
The economic and social impact of Tuberculosis on women In some parts of the world TB has been eradicated, but low detection rates and poor treatment rates are still an issue in developing countries.
This is of particular social importance because these are the prime years for women to bear children. The burden of NTDs is huge in South Asia compared to other developing regions of the world and is rising constantly due to widespread prevalence of risk factors and lack of effective treatment opportunities.
The first AIDS case in Nepal was reported in and, as ofnational estimates indicated that about 49, adults and children are affected with HIV.
In Vietnam, for instance, patient delay time onset from first diseases symptoms until first visit a doctor or a hospitalis the same for both sexes, but doctors delay is much more significant towards women than men.
Research conducted in Sri Lanka showed that women with LF can lose their jobs and be abandoned by their families [ 58 ]. Sri Lanka has the most efficient blood screening process in South Asia which has contributed greatly to maintain a low prevalence rate of HIV. Understanding the Social Determinants of Infectious Diseases in South Asia Accumulating evidence suggests that the social context in which individuals live and work has great influence on health and wellness [ 764 ].
In Africa, on the other hand, communicable diseases account for 63 percent of all deaths. Milestone events in their cancer journey can often trigger these feelings. An agent that can spread through the air has greater potential for infecting a larger number of individuals than an agent that is spread through direct contact.
Additionally, TB is the third-leading cause of death for women aged 15 to This is of particular social importance because these are the prime years for women to bear children. Another study from University Hospitals in Assuit, Egypt, analyzed the effects of tuberculosis on menstrual patterns and fertility .
Public Health: Tuberculosis. Search this site. Home. Tuberculosis. Social Impacts. Economic Impacts. Environmental Impacts. Conclusions. References. Social Impacts. The stigma that accompanies TB has crippling social implications. Due to the ease with which the disease is transferred, people do not want to be in close proximity to any.
nication and Social Mobilization at the Country Level of the Stop TB Partnership and have reviewed the document and provided comments: José Leonardo Rego Acevedo (Asociación de Enfermos de Tuberculosis (ASET), Peru), Edith Alarcón (Internation.
In this review of tuberculosis and migration we discuss the impact of migration on the epidemiology of TB in low burden countries, describe the various screening strategies to address this issue, review the yield and cost-effectiveness of these programs and describe.
THE IMPACT OF TUBERCULOSIS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH Franque Grimard and Guy Harling Department of Economics McGill University, Montréal ABSTRACT Tuberculosis remains one of the most devastating diseases in the world, affecting.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs.Social and economic impact of tuberculosis